I made it to Whiterun, by the skin of my teeth!
I had to stop in Rorikstead because of the rain. I slept there for a few hours until the weather let up.
I headed up the road where I found murdered vigilants wearing amulets of Stendarr. Further up the road, a pack of wolves had a caribou surrounded; I made sure to leave plenty of space between myself and them.
The next few miles were peaceful. I could see the small lights of Dragonsreach glowing, even from miles away. As I neared Whiterun, a lone wolf suddenly emerged and chased me for a mile. I caught up to some Khajiit, and with my temporary comrades, we were able to frighten the wolf away.
I made it Whiterun, however, and rented a room for the week. I found a priest preaching in the center of town, who let me pray at his shrine of Talos. I hope to be able to purchase some armor and weapons and make my journey back home.